Astronomers create first large-scale map of universe
Astronomers have created the first map of the large-scale structure of the universe in its entirety based on the positions of the quasars.
Quasars are very bright and distant points of light fed by supermassive black holes.
“Because the quasars are so bright we can see through the universe,” said Ashley Ross, of Ohio State University in the US.
“This makes them ideal objects to use to make the map bigger,” Ross said.
The surprising luminosity of the quasars is due to supermoulants black holes that are in their centers.
As matter and energy fall into the black hole of a quasar, they heat up at incredible temperatures and begin to glow. It is this bright light that is detected by a dedicated 2.5 meter telescope on Earth.
“These quasars are so far away that their light left them when the universe was between three and seven billion years old, although even before Earth existed,” said Zhao Gongbo National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Science.
To make their cards, scientists used the Sloan Foundation’s telescope to observe an unprecedented number of quasars.
During the first two years of the barium oscillation measurement spectroscopic study of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (eBoss), astronomers measured precise dimensional positions for more than 147,000 quasars.
Observations of the telescope gave the team the distances of the quasars, they are used to create a three-dimensional map of where quasars.
However, to use the map to understand the history of the expansion of the universe, they had to go further, using an intelligent technique that involves the study of “acoustic oscillations of baryons (BAO)”.
The BAO is the current imprint of sound waves that have traveled the universe early when it was much warmer and denser than the universe we see today.
However, when the universe was 380,000 years old, the conditions have suddenly changed and the sound waves to be “frozen” instead.
These frozen waves are printed in the three-dimensional structure of the universe we see today.
The results of the new study confirm the standard cosmological model that researchers have built over the past 20 years.
In the standard model, the universe follows the predictions of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, but includes components that we can measure effects, but we do not understand the causes.